The US Postal Service will issue Wu Jianxiong commemorative stamps – Chinese physicist, mother of the atomic bomb
“When I was young, homesickness was a small stamp. I was on this end and my mother was on the other.”
Stamps are memories with stories. Behind it contains emotions, history, social changes, and traditional culture. It carries the temperature of history, the course of life, and the genes of the Chinese nation’s endless and advancing development. It is also the heritage of traditional culture. An important part of.
The past 2020 is an extraordinary year, and the upcoming 2021 Lunar New Year will also be a promising holiday. The traditional festival most valued by the Chinese is especially true for the Chinese and overseas Chinese. No matter where they are, New Year’s Eve is a symbol of the blessings and expectations of Chinese children to their families, to the motherland and to a better tomorrow.
The United States Postal Service (USPS) chose to issue a commemorative stamp of Wu Jianxiong, a Chinese-American nuclear physicist, on the day of the Lunar New Year’s Eve, February 11, which is of far-reaching significance. The official website of the US Postal Service stated that she “is one of the most influential nuclear physicists in the 20th century. She has become an authoritative model in the field of science, and has made great contributions to physical science, which has permanently changed modern physical theories.”
The note on the top of this stamp for this outstanding Chinese woman is “Wu Jianxiong/Nuclear Physicist”. Wu Jianxiong wears a traditional Chinese cheongsam, his expression reveals profound wisdom, and the background color is lapis lazuli. With a face value of 55 cents, it can be used to send a letter that does not exceed 1 ounce of first-class mail in the United States.
It is worth mentioning that from 1958 until his death in 1997, Wu Jianxiong was nominated for the Nobel Prize at least seven times (currently only nominations before 1966 can be retrieved, which means that Wu Jianxiong’s nomination may actually be more many). We all know that the world owes her a Nobel Prize…
It should be understood that the number of scientists commemorated by US stamps is far fewer than the number of Nobel laureates. Only famous physicists such as Einstein, Fermi, and Feynman have received this honor. A stamp that will be circulated forever, you must know that the national stamps are the real commemorative, better than the Nobel Prize.
We log on the USPS website and see “Due to the high order volume, please wait for the order to be accepted within 2-4 working days”
Sale time: February 11, 2021 (Thursday) 11 am Eastern Time
The sale takes place on the Facebook and Twitter pages of the U.S. Postal Service.
Some readers may think that in today’s day when handwritten letters are dwindling, collecting stamps has any special significance.
Former U.S. President Eisenhower once said:
“In the eternal hunger for knowledge and mutual understanding of mankind, stamps in the world are powerful physical teaching materials. They are also a historical picture album of all the progress of art, science and mankind since the earliest civilization.”
In the inheritance of family letters worth ten thousand gold, stamps are even more irreplaceable. Under the scouring of the long river of history, they appear to have more commemorative value. “Stamps are the country’s business card.” A stamp like Wu Jianxiong reflects the characteristics of the times. It is of great significance to the history of postal development and to the Chinese, and its collection value is even higher.
The Internet quickly replaced the era of letters, and the antiquity of fast-tracking has passed away. We chose to use e-mail to maintain the sense of ritual in the past, but we couldn’t write the words “just like the face”. In addition to general election ballots, or paper bills, it has become a luxury to receive a letter with a stamp.
“It used to be slow, cars, horses, and mail were slow, so I could only love one person in my life.” Mu Xin’s poem once touched many people. But what impressed us in the end was not the mail, but the time-consuming “slowness”.
The paper is short and the love is long, see the words as the face. This stamp bears historical imprints and truly reaches the hearts of the people. It still conveys our emotions in a simple and sincere manner, so that we can never forget it.
Responding to the request of Wu Jianxiong’s granddaughter Jada Yuan
In response to Wu Jianxiong’s granddaughter Jada Yuan’s request, I would really appreciate it if you can help! The following is the content of Jada’s request:
Hello, everyone, to commemorate my grandmother Professor Wu Jianxiong for the permanent stamp issuance ceremony for the USPS. February 11 (Thursday) at 11 am. https://about.usps.com/…/ chien-shiung-wu-commemorative …
for sharing purposes, she is a Chinese immigrant, and in the 1950s, he became a nuclear physicist in a field almost exclusively dominated by men . Her experiments on unconserved parity proved the basic laws of physics, which have been irrefutable for 30 years.
The male theoretical physicist who worked with her won the Nobel Prize, but she did not win the Nobel Prize this time, or because of his previous research on Beta decay. She is one of only two people to receive this honor this year, and the United States Postal Service also commemorated the achievements of Asian Americans during the year. Her stamp art was done by Asian American painter Kam Mak.
Are you involved in any Asian American, immigrant, Chinese, or women in science organization that may be interested in the 2/11 social event? If so, please let me know.
Wu Jianxiong, the mother of the atomic bomb – was listed on the permanent stamps of the United States. She is the Chinese Lady Curie and the granddaughter-in-law of Yuan Shikai!
2021 is the year of the ox. The United States Postal Service has released permanent stamps for the year of the ox. One of them is the mask of the ox king, which is very Chinese.
And the other one is a face of an old Chinese lady whose name is Wu Jianxiong
Wu Jianxiong has a very “many” name. Americans call her one of the most influential nuclear physicists in the 20th century .
In a field dominated by men, she has established her authority through accurate research and testing the basic theories of physics for more than 40 years!
Introduction to Wu Jianxiong (foreign academician and physicist of the Chinese Academy of Sciences)
Wu Jianxiong (1912.5.31-1997.2.16), born in Liuhe Town, Taicang, Suzhou, Jiangsu Province, Chinese American, nuclear physicist, has made worldwide contributions in the field of β-decay research, and is known as “Madam Curie of the East” , Wu Jianxiong is the first female president in the history of the American Physical Society (APS). He also participated in the Manhattan Project and is one of the world’s most outstanding experimental physicists.
Wu Jianxiong graduated from the Department of Physics, National Central University in the 23rd year of the Republic of China (1934) with a bachelor’s degree. He graduated from the University of California at Berkeley in 1940 with a doctorate in physics. In 1952, Wu Jianxiong was appointed as an associate professor at Columbia University. He was promoted to a professor in 1958. He was elected as a member of the American Academy of Sciences in 1958. In 1975, he was awarded the National Medal of Science, the highest scientific honor in the United States.
In 1990, the Purple Mountain Observatory of the Chinese Academy of Sciences named the asteroid with the international number 2752 “Wu Jianxiong Star”. In 1994, Wu Jianxiong was elected as the first foreign academician of the Chinese Academy of Sciences.
Wu Jianxiong’s main academic work is to use β decay experiments to prove the non-conservation of parity in weak interactions, that is, to use experiments to prove nuclear β decay in the law of conservation of vector flow, combined with experimental research in muon, meson and antiproton physics.
The result appeared in Wu Jianxiong’s ranking as a world-class experimental physicist. Many famous scientists did not agree with Yang Zhenning because of her achievements. Li Zhengdao was puzzled by the Nobel Prize in Physics, but Wu Jianxiong has been recognized as one of the most outstanding physicists in the world
Wu Jianxiong is called “Mrs. Curie of China”, and her name is very popular in physics.
She verified experimentally the parity violation, her work achievements of Lee and Yang, the Nobel Prize in physics gave him two.
Hu Shi called her a “100% student”, and what is even less known is that she is still Yuan Shikai’s granddaughter-in-law. What is going on?
( Mrs. Curie of China -Wu Jianxiong)
In 1912, in Liuhe Town, Taicang County, Jiangsu Province, Wu Zhongyi, a squire, gave birth to a daughter. Wu Zhongyi was enlightened.
In his early years, he studied at Shanghai Nanyang College. The children of the Wu family belonged to the “Jian” family according to their genealogy. Wu Zhongyi named his daughter “Jianxiong”. When he grew up, he became a “hero”. The name “Jianxiong” resembled a boy.
But she was born slim and “Jianxiong” whose name is “Weiwei” and her gentle appearance is more compatible. Wu Zhongyi advocated equality between men and women and established Mingde Girls’ School in the town at his own expense.
His wife works as a teacher at Mingde School, and the seven-year-old Jianxiong is attending Mingde School. Wu Zhongyi hopes that his daughter will become an educated person.
(Wu Zhongyi embraces his beloved daughter Wu Jianxiong)
After graduating from “Mingde”, Wu Jianxiong was admitted to Suzhou Women’s Normal School. After graduating in 1929, she was recommended to Central University. Because she was studying in a normal school, she had to teach and serve for a year before she could continue her education.
Wu Jianxiong didn’t want to delay his studies, and went to the Chinese Public School in Shanghai to study for another year. Coincidentally, her “idol” Mr. Hu Shi was the principal there. Wu Jianxiong, who loves to read, was already a “Hu Fan”.
Reading Hu Shi’s articles in the ” New Youth ” magazine, plus a speech that chased after Hu Shi, but the famous Hu Shi didn’t know that there was such a small fan.
At the Chinese public school, President Hu Shi personally taught the history of Chinese thought. After an exam, Hu Shi saw Wu Jianxiong’s papers and his eyes brightened. This student had so thoroughly done the 300-year history of thought in the Qing Dynasty and gave her a hundred strokes. Minute.
The other two famous teachers, Yang Honglie and Ma Junwu, also said that there was a girl in the class who always scored 100 points in the exam.
(Wu Jianxiong and teacher Hu Shi)
In 1930, Wu Jianxiong studied at the Central University. At first, she majored in mathematics and later switched to physics. After graduating from her undergraduate degree, she spent another two years to study physics at Zhejiang University.
It’s no exaggeration for Zhejiang University to call her an alumnus. Zhejiang University was already a “double first-class”. Wu Jianxiong’s mentor encouraged her to study abroad. Once Wu Jianxiong was admitted to the University of Michigan in Ann Arbao , her uncle offered her the offer. Cost of studying abroad.
In August 1936, Wu Jianxiong boarded the President Hoover cruise ship and set off for the United States. Her parents and uncle saw her off together. His father was smiling, and his mother was tearful. He waved to her and shouted, you must be more careful in a foreign country. Who ever thought this was the last time Wu Jianxiong and his parents met.
(First time to Berkeley)
The cruise ship sailed on the Pacific Ocean and arrived in San Francisco a month later. After landing in the United States, Wu Jianxiong heard people say.
The University of Michigan in the central part of the University of Michigan discriminates against women a bit. The student center does not allow girls to go through the main entrance. A friend persuaded her that it is better to study and repair in Berkeley, and Berkeley’s physics is worse than that of Michigan. Undecided, the chairman of the Chinese Students’ Association at Berkeley at the time was Yuan Jialiu.
Back then, as it is now, although the president of the student council was not an official, he was always an enthusiastic person who was more enthusiastic towards female school girls. It’s really like a sister Wu from the sky.
Yuan Jialiu was happy, and he took Wu Jianxiong, who was wearing a cheongsam, to visit various places, and also introduced her to Berkeley’s repeat laboratory in particular.
(Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory today)
Wu Jianxiong was very impressed with Berkeley, so he decided to stay in Berkeley instead of going to UM. In addition, Yuan Jialiu’s classmate Yuan Jialiu walked around her in front of her horse.
Wu Jianxiong’s impression of him was also good. Female students studying abroad at the time hadn’t heard of fire prevention, theft prevention, and seniority prevention.
Both in a foreign country, and the same people in the end of the world, such good deeds are hard to come by. If you miss this village, there will be no such shop. His heart was moved, and her heart was moved.
But when she inquired, Yuan Jialiu’s background really scared her.
(Yuan Jialiu of the prosperous and prosperous)
It turned out that Yuan Jialiu, who had first studied as a graduate student in the Department of Physics at Berkeley, was no one else. This person was Yuan Shikai’s grandson, direct and direct relatives.
The world calls Yuan Shikai a “thief of the country”, Yuan Shikai’s second son is Yuan Kewen, and Yuan Jialiu is Yuan Kewen’s third son.
Yuan Kewen doesn’t love the mountains and the beautiful people. “The place is windy and rainy, and don’t go to the top of Qionglou.” Yuan Kewen’s poems hurt Yuan Shikai’s heart.
He was coldly received and placed under house arrest. Yuan Jialiu stayed away from Beiping and lived with his mother in rural Henan Province since he was a child. The 13-year-old Yuan Jialiu entered Tianjin Nankai Middle School.
Later, he transferred to the British Mission School. At the age of 16, Yuan Jialiu was admitted to the Business School to study engineering. Two years later, he was admitted to the Department of Physics of Yenching University.
Yuan Jialiu studied radio in particular, focusing on radio communications. Yuan Jialiu graduated from Yanjing University in 1932 and then went to graduate school for two years. Yuan Jialiu arrived at Berkeley one step ahead of Wu Jianxiong. Although Yuan Jialiu had no roots, he was not right.
But he is a good student with excellent academic performance.
(The cheongsam female schoolmaster on the Berkeley campus)
Yuan Jialiu has been diligent and hardworking since he was a child. He is humble and sincere towards others, and he is also willing to help others.
When his classmates broke things, he asked him to fix things. Wu Jianxiong always got a month from the water. He was particularly impressed with Yuan Jialiu. Although Wu’s father was an anti-Yuan revolutionary party, they are now in a foreign country, and they have become fellow travelers.
A 25-year-old pair of young men and women are in love with each other. The sweetness of love makes time pass so fast that everything is gone.
Four years later, Wu Jianxiong received his doctorate degree. After graduation, he continued to work as a postdoctoral fellow in the radioactive laboratory. Two years later, the day before Wu Jianxiong’s 30th birthday, they took off their lab coats and put on wedding dresses.
The wedding was held at the home of Yuan Jialiu’s tutor, Milliken. Many classmates and friends came to celebrate, including Qian Xuesen. After their marriage, they went to a beach in Los Angeles to spend a “honey week”.
Then they returned to their respective laboratories. After marriage, they fell in love with each other. Six years later, Wu Jianxiong went to Columbia University as a professor and began her long teaching and research, while Yuan Jialiu went to industry to earn money to support her family.
(Wu Jianxiong in the laboratory)
At the end of World War II in 1944, Columbia University participated in the “Manhattan Project” and Wu Jianxiong was in charge of the gamma-ray detector.
This is the highest state secret of the United States. Wu Jianxiong is the only Chinese. After the atomic bomb is assembled, it does not explode. The reason is that the nuclear chain reaction always stops.
Where did it happen? Wouldn’t it be a dud?
It turned out that silicon dioxide-135 was messing up, and the nuclear raw material uranium-235 was mixed with additive-135, which made the nuclear reaction impossible. The truth became clear. The problem was solved after the instability of fiscal-135 was removed.
Without Wu Jianxiong, the US atomic bomb would take several more years, and even more people would die when defeating Japan. From then on, Wu Jianxiong was called “Mrs. Curie of China.”
(Wu Jianxiong does beta decay experiment)
Also studying physics in the United States were Li Zhengdao and Yang Zhenning. In 1956, both of them proposed “parity non-conservation”, and people in the Air Force believed in “parity conservation.”
Li and Yang have noses and eyes, but they can’t prove it by experiments. The physics bigwigs in the same industry don’t believe them, Li Zhengdao, who is also at Columbia University.
In order to ask Wu Jianxiong for help, I hope Wu Jianxiong can use her experimental physics skills to verify that the parity deduced by him and Yang Zhenning is not conserved.
Wu Jianxiong readily agreed. She took the train from New York to DC every day to do experiments. She used the beta decay experiment to accurately prove that the parity is not conserved in weak interactions. The theory of Yang Zhenning and Li Zhengdao is reliable.
In 1958, Princeton University gave the first honorary doctorate to a female scientist-Wu Jianxiong (front second from left). At the same time, Princeton University also received honorary doctorate degrees from Li Zhengdao (front right, first right) and Yang Zhenning (front right second))
Her paper was published in the top magazine “Physics Review”, which caused a sensation in the international physics community. Li Zhengdao and Yang Zhenning were happier. Wu Jianxiong’s hard work made them both.
A year later, the Nobel Prize in Physics was awarded to both Yang and Li. Many people fought for Wu Jianxiong, but she did not respond. She was not the Nobel Prize winner.
The popularity in China is far less than that of Yang and Li, but people in the United States don’t think so. She is the first woman to be awarded an honorary doctorate by Princeton University.
She is the first female president of the American Physical Society. She won the National Science Award and the Comstock Prize. In 1978, she won the first Wolf Prize.
Her “Beta Decay” was regarded as a classic of physics.
(Premier Zhou met Yuan Jialiu and Wu Jianxiong in 1973)
In his later years, Wu Jianxiong did not forget his hometown and donated US$250,000 to his alma mater, Taicang Mingde School. In 1997, an 84-year-old man died of a stroke, and the leaves returned to her roots. Her ashes were buried in Taicang Mingde School.
She pursued the truth and dedicated herself to science all her life. Wu Jianxiong’s tombstone is engraved, “She is an outstanding citizen of the world and an eternal Chinese.” She has proved that women are in the field of science.
It has also won the respect of the Chinese people in the world, and today it has been awarded a permanent stamp of the United States, letting more Americans know that the Chinese are good!
(Wu Jianxiong: May 31, 1912-February 16, 1997)
On February 16, 1997, Wu Jianxiong died in New York at the age of 85. In accordance with her last wish, Yuan Jialiu personally escorted the ashes back to the mainland and was buried in Liuliuhe, Taicang, Suzhou.
In the cemetery, there are two spheres, symbolizing the “non-conservation of parity in weak interaction” that she has verified experimentally. Two Nobel Prize winners, Yang Zhenning inscribed the name of the cemetery, and Li Zhengdao wrote the epitaph.